Types Of Bias And Examples

Response Bias - You believe that the person can not answer. One study found that African American judges, as a group, and white judges, as a group, perceive racial harassment differently (regardless of political affiliation). Rather, bias depends on enrollment and retention of study participants and on measurement. Bias is reduced and variance is increased in relation to model complexity. For example, a modern smartphone that is many times more powerful than supercomputers from the 1960s. A bias could for example lead one to accept or non-accept the truth of a claim, not because of the strength of the claim itself, but because it does or does not correspond to one's own preconceived ideas. For example, militants fighting. Identify the consequences of the biases that may affect epidemiologic studies. (Recall the example. This page outlines 11 types of media bias, along with examples of their use in popular media outlets. This means that each sample point represents the attributes of a known number of. Exposure to a male pre-K teacher, to a black school principal,. Unconscious bias, if left unchecked, can turn to discrimination. Dictionary Term of the Day Articles Subjects. This post covers the undercurrents of Value Attribution, and Diagnosis Bias. In this list of cognitive biases, I try to explain the basic idea behind every bias in a plain non-academic language with simple examples. Intervention bias may also refer to the timing of research. Some spectacular examples of this have occured in the media in recent years, when otherwise sage and seasoned journalists were completely taken in by. The chain structure of Figure 2(a) is the sim- plest structure exhibiting selection bias. " Source: "Media Bias: An Overview" Michael Aliprandini and Simone Isadora Flynn from Points of View: Media Bias, 3/1/2016, page 1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Questionnaires Questionnaires are used differently in various fields. Diversity in hiring and employment allows for the development of a robust, well-rounded team that can perform better under pressure and in different. Types of Unconscious Biases and How to Counteract TYPE OF BIAS HOW IT WORKS HOW TO COUNTERACT Normative Bias Assumptions about and preference for traditional career paths. Example Accounting policies within an organization may be overly prudent because of cultural influence of an over cautious leadership. Types of Stereotypes Steroetypes encompass every race, religion, gender and sexual preference. But what is bias and why did it case many of us to automatically assume that the surgeon would a man? What is Bias? Bias is an inclination or prejudice for or against one person or group. One study found that African American judges, as a group, and white judges, as a group, perceive racial harassment differently (regardless of political affiliation). Response bias These types of research bias are caused when the subjects shape their responses to please the person interviewing them. Does the work update other sources, substantiate other materials you have read, or add new information? Does it extensively or marginally cover your topic? You should explore enough sources to obtain a variety of viewpoints. Confirmation Bias: This is a tendency for humans to seek out information that supports a pre-conceived belief about the applicant that has been formed prior to the interview. This type of gender bias is rampant in all types of businesses. A good manager should be objective about the performance of their employees and performance review bias distorts a manager and company's view of how an employee is performing. Types of information bias include: Observer bias. View the high resolution version of today's graphic by clicking here. A television news program that presents both sides of a particular issue****. measurement bias: Decision making A systematic measurement error that skews all data; for example, an improperly calibrated sphygmomanometer produces biased blood. 4 Behavioral Biases And How To Avoid Them For example, if a stock trade loses 7% of its value, exit the position. Race and gender are the most important social categories, with the most recognisable and identifiable cases of social injustice. Some examples of commonly made mistakes in types of survey bias are as follows. Types of Bias. Bias is when a person, place, event, or thing is viewed or shown in a consistently inaccurate way. Such imperfections include the selection of units with unequal probabilities, non-coverage of the population, and non-response. Bias in the Counseling Process: How to Recognize and Avoid It. Like telephone surveys, face-to-face surveys also avoid a type of response bias typical of mail surveys, namely, the tendency for respondents, on average, to be more highly educated than those who fail to respond. In general, common of forms of bias arise when the media support or bout a particular political party, candidate, or philosophy; however, other types of bias exist such as advertising bias, corporate bias, mainstream bias, sensationalism, and concision bias. ON THE IMAGE OF DISABILITY. To locate examples of bias by placement, observe where a newspaper places political stories. 5% of US men are over 6 feet tall • Just over 6% are women,. Happens when the collected data doesn't accurately represent the environment the program is expected to run into. For example, if all methodological limitations of studies were expected to bias the results towards a lack of effect, and the evidence indicates that the intervention is effective, then it may be concluded that the intervention is effective even in the presence of these potential biases. This type of bias will cause you to seek out information to confirm or prove that you are correct in an assumption that you have. , to keep VCE and IC constant as the dc parameters vary from device to device. Researchers want to learn what citizens in a certain city think of having a new park built. Discover how machine. check the link for different types and examples of each Read More. Types of Bias and How They're Affect Your Recruiting Process. Confounding Bias. Insider trading. Have students track arguments through texts as they examine logical reasoning, bias, and persuasive techniques such as emotional appeals, character attacks, and slippery slopes. Survivorship bias is a statistical bias type in which the researcher focuses only on that part of the data set that already went through some kind of pre-selection process – and missing those data-points, that fell off during this process (because they are not visible anymore). Bias • Bias occurs when there is a systematic difference between the results from a study and the true state of affairs • Bias is often introduced when a study is being designed, but can be introduced at any stage • Appropriate statistical methods can reduce the effect of bias, but may not eliminate it totally. Bias Definition. For example, a. In order to collect data, researchers attend a local town meeting and ask people there about their thoughts. Although the term 'selection bias' is used as the general category for all prior differences, when we know specifically what the group difference is, we usually hyphenate it with the 'selection' term. Bias in medicine may take the form of racial, ethnic, gender, socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural biases against particular groups of medical patients. Racial profiling targets certain groups based on the notion that some groups are more likely to commit certain crimes than others. For example response bias can be removed by ‘reversing’ half the questions on a questionnaire so that the variable is scored by positive responses on half the questions and negative responses on the other half. This research bias occurs when certain groups are omitted from the sample. This bias usually favors the treatment group. contributions to the upper bound of various factors for each type of project, and for two types of optimism bias – capital costs and works duration. These three types of bias and their potential solutions are discussed using various examples. 3 gathered in many types of studies. The best example showing how we use confirmation bias is when we go through a CV and see that the candidate attended Harvard Business School, w e expect the candidate to be a top performer because he or she is from an ivy league school. This video introduces the behavioral ethics bias known as the self-serving bias. The bad news: your job postings likely have some bias. I want to define a full program to show implicit and explicit type conversion in c#. I can name and define the different types of media bias. Drawing upon a fictional case study based on years of real life consulting experience, we will explore how each bias manifests daily in the workplace, how each bias. The intuition gained from analyzing this example will serve as a basis for subsequently treating more complicated structures. An example might be that ethnic minorities are excluded or, conversely, only ethnic minorities are studied. Media Bias in Presidential Elections: A Meta-Analysis By Dave D’Alessio and Mike Allen A meta-analysis considered 59 quantitative studies containing data concerned with partisan media bias in presidential election campaigns since 1948. Researchers want to learn what citizens in a certain city think of having a new park built. Quite often the bias circuitry is overlooked due to its apparent simplicity. Taken together, these biases are called direction preferences. colleagues, and then readily corrected. Bias is a technical term for playing favorites in choosing study subjects or in assessing their exposure or disease status. Out of the 188 cognitive biases that exist, there is a much narrower group of biases that has a disproportionately large effect on the ways we do business. QI Macros Gage R&R template, will calculate the bias of the gage (plus or minus). Projection Bias. A statistic is biased if it is calculated in such a way that it is systematically different from the population parameter being estimated. Amori, who holds a doctorate in counselor education and a master's degree in counseling and human systems, says four types of cognitive bias are most common. Purposive sampling is a non-probability sampling method and it occurs when. This could also be seen when working crime scenes. At that stage, confounding can be prevented by use of randomization, restriction, or matching. For example if during a recruitment process an employer ignores the skills and experience of a candidate who is a different race than them and appoints another candidate who is the same race, this could be discriminatory. With recent progress, many types of learning algorithms (such as GANs [2], VAEs and Flow Models [3,4]) can learn distributions whose samples are highly visually appealing images such as the ones below [2]. Bias is reduced and variance is increased in relation to model complexity. This type of bias is pervasive in the media, and in your average person's psyche. Nonverbal bias: o Undue emphasis might be placed on nonverbal cues that have nothing to do with the job, such as loudness or softness of voice, or the type of handshake given. Simply put, outcome bias in medicine occurs when the assessment of the quality of a clinical decision, such as the ordering of a particular test or treatment, is affected by knowledge. Selection bias is probably the most important and complex bias among all the different types of bias in statistics. Is the author's point of view objective and impartial? Is the language free of emotion-arousing words and bias? C. They may not find a job due to their age, or even get promoted because the organization prefers to promote younger employees. PDF | On May 14, 2016, Kinsley DAVID Adaigbe and others published Practical Examples of three types of cognitive bias. Selection biases in cohort studies include: healthy worker effect, diagnostic bias, non-response bias and loss to follow-up. That is, we need to check for underlying assumptions about people and issues that may be unproven or wrong, and that can lead to errors in our interpretations. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *. Transcript of Types of Media Bias. Spotting the Study Design. Types of Bias Bias is prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair. Projection Bias. Find out how much you know about the different types of bias that human beings can experience. This is an example of how bias, and in this case gender bias specifically, plays out in our minds and in our thought process. Durability bias is the subconscious inclination to forecast past events or occurrences forward to the future. This page outlines 11 types of media bias, along with examples of their use in popular media outlets. The Type I normal bias audio cassette was the standard and most widely compatible tape format – the direct descendant of the original compact cassette. Response bias These types of research bias are caused when the subjects shape their responses to please the person interviewing them. Entman School of Media and Public Affairs, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 This article proposes integrating the insights generated by framing, priming, and agenda-setting research through a systematic effort to conceptualize and understand. Barriers and Bias: The Status of Women in Leadership. Good Looking People Bias. The most obvious criticism about convenience sampling is sampling bias and that the sample is not representative of the entire population. In studies of diseases that are quickly fatal, transient, or subclinical. If a baby is 8. Types of Bias and How They’re Affect Your Recruiting Process. Linguistic bias includes issues of ethnicity, culture and language proficiency as well. Bias is the mortal enemy of all surveys, and as a survey creator it’s important to guard against it to make sure you get reliable results. One of the most well-known examples of bias involves the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine (Paxil), an anti-anxiety medicine. The final set contained more than 1,200 images. Publication bias. Take as an example the term. TheCris8490 606 views. Recent research has shown that people make such assessments with some accuracy. Mainstream media maligned: 10 examples of blatant bias comparing him on the same plane as Mrs. Another limitation results from increasing complexity of biophysiological devices. Omitted-variable bias is the bias that appears in estimates of parameters in regression analysis when the assumed specification omits an independent variable that should be in the model. Learn how to apply calibration measurements: perform dimensional measurements on a. Though science has a clear methodology that researchers have virtually perfected over centuries, rarely is an individual study perfect. Posted Sep 07, 2018. Thinking Germans are dangerous because of Hitler. The possibility of selection bias should always be considered when defining a study sample. How to use bias in a sentence. Interviewer bias is more likely when disease status is known to interviewer. For example, if a weight loss study is investigating if a high protein diet works to reduce weight, participants might up their protein intake. Media bias is defined as communication portrayed by the news that is one sided. Intervention bias may also refer to the timing of research. The following example shows how a sample can be biased, even though there is some randomness in the selection of the sample. People may refuse to answer, or lack the time or inclination to answer. 3 gathered in many types of studies. 3 million high school students annually take the Educational Testing Service's SAT I, America's oldest and most widely used college entrance exam. A great example is the 401k plan example where the system incorporated automatic withdrawals from the accounts and people contributed on a regular basis as their mental bias found it too hard to cancel the pension plans. bias definition: The definition of bias is something that is diagonal or slanting. Three types of bias can be distinguished: information bias, selection bias, and confounding. departments of Education and Justice in January 2014 not only mentions implicit bias as a factor that may affect the administration of school discipline, it also encourages school personnel to receive implicit bias training. Historically, of course, discrimination has been a major cause of the lack of diversity in higher education and the rest of society. Examples of liberal media bias are legion, of course. In data collection, there are two types of non-response: item and unit non-response. Racial bias and discrimination come in a variety of forms. A poll is a type of survey or inquiry into public opinion conducted by interviewing a random sample of people. The average person assumes that their way of thinking about things is typical of most people, and therefore other normal people will come to the same conclusion as them. Conformity Bias. That would be convenience sampling and the ‘early birds’ of each of the processes may not represent the population very well. Bias Goes from Conscious to Unconscious. Creates a case group not representative of cases in the community. , recall bias) Unlike confounding bias, selection and information bias cannot be completely corrected after the completion of a study; thus we need to minimize their impact during the analysis phase. Story placement is a measure of how important the editor considers the story. thus perpetuating publication bias. Op Amp Input Bias Current. Selective Perception and Confirmation Bias. Supervised machine learning algorithms can best be understood through the lens of the bias-variance trade-off. Find out how much you know about the different types of bias that human beings can experience. PDF | On May 14, 2016, Kinsley DAVID Adaigbe and others published Practical Examples of three types of cognitive bias. Bias Definition. The risk of bias tool covers six domains of bias: selection bias, performance bias, detection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias. In order to collect data, researchers attend a local town meeting and ask people there about their thoughts. At Ad Fontes, we analyze news content using a rigorous, non-partisan methodology to rank news for overall reliability and bias. Figure 1 shows an example of how an on-treatment analysis can cause bias in practice. The Bias and Fairness Audit Toolkit. For example, a patient with cancer may be more likely to recall being a smoker. The examples we have listed are from the national media, but the same principles apply to local media. In this article I focus on the design of quantitative research. Reliability refers to the extent to which assessments are consistent. Parta's Dictionary of Epidemiology gives the following definition: "Systematic difference between a true value and the value actually observed due to observer variation" and continues to describe observer variation. BEHAN MCCULLAGH. Matter of fact, there are even regional stereotypes, the Westside of Vancouver is better educated, more affluent, intelligent and the Eastside of Vancouver is the opposite. Subtle Sexism Just as there is subtle racism, research shows there is subtle sexism. Selection biases in cohort studies include: healthy worker effect, diagnostic bias, non-response bias and loss to follow-up. The type of study can generally be worked at by looking at three issues (as per the Tree of design in Figure 1): Q1. 1) what is an example of bias in media A. Ask students to identify how these seven forms emerge in interpersonal interactions. Exposure to a male pre-K teacher, to a black school principal,. With trust in media declining, media consumers must learn how to spot types of media bias. There are numerous types of biases, a few of which include: Confirmation bias: The tendency to notice information that supports one's beliefs and ignore information that does not. A television news program that presents both sides of a particular issue**** C. For example, in an experiment to calculate acceleration due to gravity using the length and time period of a simple pendulum, the size of the pendulum bob, the air friction, the slight movement of support, etc. That would be convenience sampling and the ‘early birds’ of each of the processes may not represent the population very well. Bias in medicine may take the form of racial, ethnic, gender, socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural biases against particular groups of medical patients. Example of Linearity and Bias Study. This could also be seen when working crime scenes. Confounding Bias. Your answer has been saved. Undercoverage. Bias is when a person, place, event, or thing is viewed or shown in a consistently inaccurate way. Distinction Bias. For example, you might subconsciously make selective use of data, or you might feel pressured to make a decision by powerful colleagues. We all have unconscious biases and by providing awareness training, employees are given the opportunity to learn more about it. The other major class of bias arises from errors in measuring exposure or disease. Example: 3. Professor of Culture and Cognition Lawrence Hirschfeld offers up sound recommendations in his book Race in the Making, which should be read by anyone researching race and its concomitant effects. Example: a cathode bias Tweed Bassman type amp with two 6L6’s would be about 25 Watts. To compensate for unequal probabilities of selection. The examples we have listed are from the national media, but the same principles apply to local media. Attitudes and biases are nearly synonymous in this context. Internal validity is a measure of how sound your results are, or how. Mainstream media maligned: 10 examples of blatant bias comparing him on the same plane as Mrs. Matter of fact, there are even regional stereotypes, the Westside of Vancouver is better educated, more affluent, intelligent and the Eastside of Vancouver is the opposite. This is what 'institutional' bias looks like. Author’s Purpose Why is the writer, journalist, newscaster, pundit, etc. Let's take a moment to break down some of the connotations surrounding this issue and then dive into several examples of bias. 5 Common types of Bias 1- Sample bias. Estimated Time: 5 minutes Machine learning models are not inherently objective. •subjective outcomes may be more vulnerable to bias e. Conformity Bias. Introduction. While it’s challenging to eliminate all bias from survey questions and responses, researchers can understand where biases most commonly occur and then employ techniques to minimize the biases within their research. We use cookies to make interactions with our website easy and meaningful, to. Sample size measures the number of individual samples measured or observations used in a survey or experiment. In this article I focus on the design of quantitative research. This type of bias can have harmful real-world outcomes, and. The advance of technology is commonly used as an argument that inflation is overstated. Overt racism and racist comments are examples of explicit biases. Sample selection models can help further. The chain structure of Figure 2(a) is the sim- plest structure exhibiting selection bias. Business Insider logo The words "Business Insider". In other words, the purposes of weighting are: a. In higher education, implicit bias often refers to unconscious racial or socioeconomic bias towards students, which can be as frequent as explicit bias (Boysen, et. Use the search feature above (Header) to check the bias of any source. The revamped resolution condemns more than just anti-Semitism, including examples of bigotry and violence in the United Statse going back decades. bias definition: The definition of bias is something that is diagonal or slanting. In the cultural value system of the Chinese American passivity rather than assertiveness is revered, quiescence rather than verbal articulation is a sign of wisdom and self-effacement rather than confrontation is a model of refinement. Overflows saturate to either the minimum or maximum value that the data type can represent. Gender bias is a preference or prejudice toward one gender over the other. org are unblocked. Ideological considerations such as theological, philosophical, materialistic or any other intellectual bias might distort his vision. But bias seeps into the data in ways we don't always see. This bias usually favors the treatment group. First, let's dig into the 5 most common types of leadership bias — how many are you guilty of? The 5 Most Common Types of Leadership Bias: In my 10+ years working with small businesses and Fortune 1000s alike, these are consistently the most common types of leadership bias I encounter. When we focus on the human elements of the research process and look at the nine core types of bias - driven from the respondent, the researcher or both - we are able to minimize the potential impact that bias has on qualitative market research. Accordingly, cognitive biases cause us to be irrational in the way we search for, evaluate, interpret, judge, use, and remember information, as well as in the way we make decisions. The revamped resolution condemns more than just anti-Semitism, including examples of bigotry and violence in the United Statse going back decades. This problem has been solved!. Here are some forms of media bias to watch for:. If you want to know the "bias" of your gage, simply input the "target" or "reference" value for the parts being measured into B2 and your measurements into column A. Double fold is single-fold that has been folded in half and pressed, with the single folds to the inside. Examples of other sampling biases that are not easily categorized will also be given. These attitudes may or may not be voiced overtly, but they nevertheless guide social interaction and behaviour. Researchers want to learn what citizens in a certain city think of having a new park built. So here are examples to show the reality of racial bias to anyone doubting its pervasiveness. Can social desirability be avoided? Respondents generally want to "look good" in the eyes of others. Bias in the Counseling Process: How to Recognize and Avoid It. The Type I normal bias audio cassette was the standard and most widely compatible tape format – the direct descendant of the original compact cassette. Similarly, there are many other biases at play that can be nudged in the same way for our benefit. When either type of noise is present, it is better to go with a higher bias, lower variance estimator. Think of the women who led the civil rights and education reform movements. Undercoverage. For example, exploring HIV testing using a survey is unlikely to obtain in-depth rich data about individuals' experiences. Overconfidence bias is a strong overestimation in the credibility and knowledge of an individual or source. With Cynthia DworkAlgorithms and Bias: Q. presidential campaign, when Literary Digest conducted a mail survey of 2. Bias often occurs when the survey sample does not accurately represent the population. We selectively pay attention to data that fit our prior beliefs and discard data that don’t. The following lists some types of biases, which can overlap. Example: a cathode bias Tweed Bassman type amp with two 6L6’s would be about 25 Watts. This means that each sample point represents the attributes of a known number of. Types of Unconscious Bias. Bias is reduced and variance is increased in relation to model complexity. In this example of bias disqualification, the case is moved to Judge Fairness's court. com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. It may bias the learner towards the correct solution, the incorrect, or be correct some of the time. Three types of bias can be distinguished: information bias, selection bias, and confounding. This bias occurs in two ways. While sampling is a more cost effective method of determining a result, small samples or samples that depend on a certain selection method will result in a bias within the results. For example, perceiv-. With unconscious bias in recruiting making headlines these days, here are 5 types of hiring bias you should watch out for during your recruiting process. A statistic is biased if it is calculated in such a way that it is systematically different from the population parameter being estimated. Here are some forms of media bias to watch for:. Read and learn for free about the following article: Identifying bias in samples and surveys If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Bias Definition. Following are discussions of the four common problems epidemiologists face in conducting their studies and interpreting results: Selection Bias. CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF BIAS IN THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX AS A MEASURE OF THE COST OF LIVING by MICHAEL J. (2001) reports another type of bias in designs for prostate. For example, the minority carriers generated in the p-type material experience a repulsive force from the external voltage and try to move towards n-side. thus perpetuating publication bias. And because recognizing and addressing unconscious biases is a skill that can be learned, this report offers some suggestions to begin recognizing and. My previous post touched on Loss Aversion and the Power of Commitment. Start studying Types of sampling and bias. Iron-on (fusible) eliminates the need for cutting, folding, or pinning. Promotion And Succession Planning. Figure 1 shows an example of how an on-treatment analysis can cause bias in practice. Type 1 and type 2 errors are both methodologies in statistical hypothesis testing that refer to detecting errors that are present and absent. Bias is a statistical term which means a systematic deviation from the true value. Bias can influence employee performance reviews in incredibly negative ways. This may be the biggest disadvantage when using a convenience sample because it leads to more problems and criticisms. The most discussed is substitution bias, which creates a second order bias in the CPI. Bias is when a statement reflects a partiality, preference, or prejudice for or against a person, object, or idea. Explicit Bias. As an example, we can talk about a phenomenon we see among investors. The following example shows how a sample can be biased, even though there is some randomness in the selection of the sample. If an adult is 85 lbs and the reading from the same scale is 85. Clinton would be to do the public a disservice — they basically argued their bias against him. Examples of Bias in Hiring. • Give examples of studies where this bias might appear. There are numerous types of biases, a few of which include: Confirmation bias: The tendency to notice information that supports one's beliefs and ignore information that does not. Selection & Participation Bias : This occurs if the study populations being compared are not strictly comparable. In fact, some researchers assert that negative emotions have an impact close to 3x stronger than positive emotions. It is up to you to examine the media in your area and determine the extent to which labeling and other types of bias appear. For example, perhaps a manager has a keen interest in and enjoys talking about financial data. Cognitive dissonance is one of the most well known types of biases. biased Synonym Discussion of bias. Somewhat similar to the confirmation bias is the ingroup bias, a manifestation of our innate tribalistic tendencies. Furthermore, when responses are incomplete, the scope for bias must be assessed. Media bias is defined as communication portrayed by the news that is one sided. outcome variable of scientific or policy interest. Measurement bias – Measurement bias is caused by the way in which you collect data. Furthermore some of the problems listed above can be countered through the careful design and application of self-report measures. This is the best way for you to get honest, thoughtful and accurate feedback from your survey respondents. We will cover the main types of response bias here, and we will provide examples of response bias to show just how easy it is to introduce bias within the survey. For example, perhaps a manager has a keen interest in and enjoys talking about financial data. Managers can also exhibit bias in their perception by unknowingly paying attention to only a portion of the information available to them, which is known as selective perception. Examples of types of bias include gender bias, bias against a specific group or population, or bias due to lack of sensitivity (all of which I’ll explain below). Measurement Bias. Thinking black people are naturally good athletes. One of the more common types of response bias, demand bias, comes from the respondents being influenced simply by being part of the study. The Type I normal bias audio cassette was the standard and most widely compatible tape format – the direct descendant of the original compact cassette. It seems people of all ages tend to be. By Dave Van Zandt - Media Bias Fact Check Today I am going to cover one bias term that most understand, but may not recognize as almost every source employs it. In general, common of forms of bias arise when the media support or bout a particular political party, candidate, or philosophy; however, other types of bias exist such as advertising bias, corporate bias, mainstream bias, sensationalism, and concision bias. Categories of bias. It is not personal, it is not intentional. More generally, there are many types of bias depending on the type of standard being used. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.